Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of death by infectious diseases worldwide. In 2015, the WHO estimates that 10.4 million became infected with TB, and 1.4 million people succumbed to this disease. Over 95% of cases and deaths are in developing countries, with about 84% of reported TB cases occurring in 20 countries.
India has the highest burden of tuberculosis in the world with estimated 2.8 million incident cases, aggregating to more than a fourth of the global burden. Indian government has targeted to eliminate TB in India by 2025.
The emergence of Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) and Extensively Drug Resistant (XDR) strains of M. tuberculosis (Mtu) has increased the threat that this disease poses to global public health. An estimated 13% of tuberculosis cases are resistant to the important first-line TB drug isoniazid (INH), and in 2015, there were an estimated ~480,000 cases of MDR-TB worldwide, with India, China, and the Russian Federation accounting for nearly 45% of these cases. The report of totally drug resistant (TDR) TB in 2015 and the potential spread of this TDR pathogen has created an urgency for new treatments for this disease.